Other Research Publications (from 1995)

Ziarati, R., ‘A report on IMO MSC 82 to IMarEST, for consideration to Technical Affairs Committee’, IMarEST news, 2007

Highlighted the IMO members concerns about poor standards of Maritime English.

Tezer Ulkuatam, TUDEV Report, 2007

Identified the need to focus on specific skills for different ranks and classes of Seafarers.

Ziarati, R. ‘Safety at Sea – Applying Pareto Analysis’, Proceedings of World Maritime Technology Conference (WMTC 06), Queen Elizabeth Conference Centre, 2006

Reported on the shortages of seafarers (some 30, 000 by 2015).

Specifically identified that the second most contributory factor in accidents and incidents at sea is related to the lack of competency in verbal and written communication, particularly in Maritime English.

Roschmi Raychaudhuri, 2006

Noted the need for a speaking module to be included in the tests. Other tests and guidelines have so far proved inadequate.

Ziarati, R. ‘Safety on Sea (SOS)’, Leonardo Project 2005-2007, No: TR/05/B/P/PP/178 001

Introduced multi tier English unit and a multi tier Maritime English unit in the curriculum of cadet and officer education and training programmes and obtain European recognition for them.

Ticarati, Deinz, 2005. European Accident Analysis Report

Reported that poor comprehension has been a major cause of accidents at sea and in ports. Causing loss of life, large numbers of injuries and extensive financial loss.

IMO (2005), cited in www.imo.org/human element and www.itu.edu/new/acad/tuzla/safety

Identified poor comprehension as a major cause of accidents at sea and in ports.

Urkmez (2005)

Reported that shortages of seafaring personnel range from 30000 to 100000 and increases in multi-national crew.

Ziarati, R., ‘Maritime and Training – A way forward’, confidential report to Turkish Maritime Education Foundation, July 2003

Identifies the need for a communicative and deductive approach to improve the quality of Maritime English Teaching.

Reported that there are severe shortages of personnel with sea going experience.

Loginovsky, V A., ‘Verbal Communication Failures and Safety at Sea’, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2002

Reports on the importance of English as the working language of the maritime industry and that the over all safety of the international fleet depends on the skill to apply it correctly.

It was also proposed that an environment for non-native speakers should be created in order to allow them to think in the frame of the maritime profession.

NTNU R eport, ‘Training in risk prevention and vessel safety for the coastal fishing sector’, Community Vocational Training Action Programme (1995-1999) NORAY – Contract no. E/99/1/061291/PI/I.1.1.b/FPI

Identified the importance of improving the quality of education and training, particularly with regards to communication.

Argued that the preventative approach set out in Community Directives has neither been fully understood or taken onboard by various players, nor has it been applied effectively.

British Shipping Report, 1999

Refers to the need for quality maritime skills, particularly in communication, and the importance of securing seafaring employment in the UK with several references to the importance of improving safety at sea.

The following section lists a number of recent papers and reports on Maritime Education and Training including issues relating to Maritime English.

  • IMO, ‘Casualty Statistics and Investigations – Very Serious and Serious Casualties for 2001’, February 2004
  • Torkel, S., cited in Turkish Shipping World, ISSN. 1301-5907 October 2004
  • Schroeder et al, ‘The Thematic Network on Maritime Education, Training Mobility of Seafarers (METNET): The Final Outcomes’, Vol. 3, No.1 June 2002
  • Zade et al, ‘Maritime Education and Training (MET) in the European Union: How can Maritime Administrations Support MET’, Vol. 2, No. 2 IAMU Journal, December 2002
  • Pourzanjani et al, ‘Maritime Education and Training (MET) in the European Union: How can Maritime Administrations Support MET’, Vol. 2, No. 2 IAMU Journal, December 2002
  • Videotel, ‘The Importance of On Board Training and Assessment under STCW ‘95’, Vidoetel Productions, 2001

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